Nearly acetaldehyde free foods and beverages

Low-acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-free foods and beverages

Introduction

As a result of numerous customer requests, Biohit Oyj has decided to publish a list of foods and beverages which have been shown to contain little or no acetaldehyde during laboratory analysis. Acetaldehyde is a chemical substance with a mutagenic (genotoxic; capable ofcausing changes to a cell’s DNA) concentration of 100 micromoles per liter (µM).  Accordingly, an “as safe as possible” concentration of acetaldehyde means zero or less than 10 micromoles per liter (0.4 mg /l).

Acetaldehyde is a substance which has an apple flavor, and it is especially rich in foods prepared with a fermentation process such as alcoholic beverages, vinegars and dairy products.  In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which forms part of the World Health Organization, classified acetaldehyde included in and generated endogenously from alcoholic beverages as a Group I human carcinogen.

Materials and Methods

Biohit investigated the acetaldehyde concentration in a number foods and beverages. The samples were randomly selected from different grocery stores in the capital area of Finland. As standard, two samples of each product were analysed. Although only small differences in the acetaldehyde concentrations of a given product were observed, the concentration may differ  between different  batches too.  The results are indicative only.

The analysis was performed using a gas-chromatography method that has been validated by Biohit (see below “Measurements”).

Results

The table below indicates the foods and beverages that are as safe as possible, meaning that they either contain only a small amount of acetaldehyde or no acetaldehyde at all (acetaldehyde concentration 0 to 10 µM (0-0,4 mg/l):

Update September 27, 2013
Table 1. Foods and beverages that contain only small amounts of acetaldehyde, analyzed by a gas chromatography.

CategoryManufacturer/BrandAcetaldehyde concentration (µM)
QuarkValio PROfeel® proteiinirahkarae kolme marjaa HYLA®0 (0)
QuarkDeliciest Luomu Tyrnirahka1 (0)
QuarkArla Keittiö®   Maustettu rahka raparperi-mansikka, Into 200 g7 (0,3)
QuarkValio PROfeel® proteiinirahkarae mandariini-appelsiini HYLA®8 (0,4)
QuarkArla Keittiö®   Maustettu rahka mustikka-vanilja, Into 200 g9 (0,4)
Mullet wineWanhan Porvoon Fabriikki Glögi0 (0)
Mullet wineRaikastamo Luomuglögi1 (0)
Mullet wineHommanäs Gård Jouluglögi, tiiviste3 (0,1)
Mullet wineHommanäs Gård Jouluglögi5 (0,2)
Mullet wineStockmann Glögitiiviste6 (0,3)
Mullet wineSaturnus AB Glögi, tiiviste6 (0,3)
Mullet wineHerrljunga alc. 10% Klassinen Punaviini Glögi6 (0,3)
Mullet wineProvidental Wines & Spirits AB alc. 15% Dufvenkrooks Choklad7 (0,3)
Mullet wineMarli Perinteinen Glögi10
Baby foodSemper, Mustikkaa, exp. 5.20141 (0)
Baby foodSemper, Viidakkojälkiruoka, exp. 7.20143 (0,1)
Baby foodPiltti, Omena-mango-kauraherkku, exp. 5.20143 (0,1)
Baby foodSemper, Mangoa ja Banaania, exp. 7.20144 (0,2)
Baby foodPiltti, Persikkaa ja Banaania, exp. 5.20145 (0,2)
Baby foodPiltti, Mangoa, exp. 5.20145 (0,2)
Baby foodPiltti, Metsämarjoja, exp. 6.20145 (0,2)
Baby foodPiltti, Ruusunmarjaa ja Vadelmaa, exp. 5.20145 (0,2)
Baby foodMuksu, Hedelmäralli, exp. 8.20147 (0,3)
Baby foodHippo, Trooppinen Mangomix, exp. 2.20147 (0,3)
Baby foodMuksu, Marjakimara, exp. 9.20148 (0,4)
Baby foodMuksu, Herukkaherkku, exp. 7.20148 (0,4)
Baby foodPiltti, Aurinkoinen, exp. 5.201410 (0,4)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass1 (0)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana1 (0)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana1 (0)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana1 (0)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana1 (0)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass1 (0)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass2 (0,1)
Fruit juiceValio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass2 (0,1)
Yogurt drinkGefilus, vanilja jogurttijuoma 0 (0)
Light beverageFreeway Cola Light1 (0)
Light beveragePepsi Max2 (0,1)
Light beverageFreeway Sitruunalimonadi3 (0,1)
Light beverageCoca-Cola Zero3 (0,1)
Light beverageCoca-Cola light4 (0,2)
Light beverage7UP Free5 (0,2)
Light beverageSprite Zero5 (0,2)
Light beveragePommac Light9 (0,4)
MeadMarli Perinteinen Sima0 (0)
MeadMarli Kotisima2 (0,1)
MeadVIP Perinteinen Sima0 (0)
Sparkling wineBalance Savignon Blanc, Brut , 12%4 (0,2)
Sparkling wineElysee no 1 demi sec. 12%5 (0,2)
Sparkling wineHenckel Trocken Dry-Sec, 11,5%6 (0,3)
Sparkling wineCodorniu Cava, Seco Clasico, 11,5%6 (0,3)
Sparkling wineCabriz Vinho Spumante de Qualidade, Brut 2008, 12%7 (0,3)
Sparkling wineCarrington Vintage Brut 2009, 11,5%7 (0,3)
Sparkling wineCarrington Vintage Brut 2009, 11,5%7 (0,3)
Sour whole milkValio Viilis® cola HYLA® (uutuus)0 (0)
Sour whole milkValio Eila® Laktoositon viili mango0 (0)
Sour whole milkValio Viilis® Gefilus® metsämansikka vähemmän sokeria HYLA®0 (0)
Sour whole milkValio Viilis® omena-päärynä HYLA®0 (0)
Sour whole milkValio kermaviili HYLA®0 (0)
Sour whole milkArla Ingman® Päärynä-vaniljaviili INTO 200 g0 (0)
Sour whole milkArla Keittiö® Kermaviili 10% 200 g0 (0)
Sour whole milkRainbow Herkkumonsterin mansikkaviili 200 g0 (0)
Sour whole milkRainbow Kevyt Kermaviili Vähälaktoosinen 200 g0 (0)
Sour whole milkLIDL Milbona viili 1%0 (0)
Sour whole milkJuustoportti Luomu Kermaviili 6%1 (0)
Sour whole milkArla Ingman® 1% Vadelma-kirsikkaviili INTO 200 g1 (0)
Sour whole milkValio Kevyt Viili 2,5%2 (0,1)
Sour whole milkArla Ingman® 1% Laktoositon päärynä-vaniljakerrosviili 180 g3 (0,1)
Sour whole milkArla Ingman® 1% Viili INTO 200 g3 (0,1)
Sour whole milkArla Ingman® Viili 200 g5 (0,2)
Sour whole milkArla Ingman® Kevytviili 200 g6 (0,3)
Sour whole milkValio Eila® Laktoositon viili maustamaton8 (0,4)

Measurements
 
Methods and Equipment:
Head-space gas chromatography adopted from the methods of Pikkarainen et al. (1979) and Jokelainen et al. (1994), as well as NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety) (1994).

Clarus 500 Gaschromatoraph, BAC-2 capillary column, TurboMatrix HS-110 sampler (PerkinElmer Finland, Turku).

Calibrators and Controls:
Acetaldehyde, CAS 75-07-0 (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA, cat# 506788), purity 99,9%. The samples were prepared by weighing.

Method Validation:
According to Biohit’s quality system (ISO 9001:2008, ISO13485:2003).

The validation was performed, when applicable, according to following standards and directives (the method is not accredited): 

  • Guidance for Industry. Q2B Validation of Analytical Procedures: Methodology. ICH November 1996.
  • 2002/657/EC Commission Decision of 12 August 2002, implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (Text with EEA relevance).

References:
Pikkarainen PH, Salaspuro MP, Lieber CS.A method for the determination of “free” acetaldehyde in plasma. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1979 Jul;3(3):259-61.
Jokelainen K, Roine RP, Väänänen H, Färkkilä M, Salaspuro M. In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria. Gut 1994; 35: 1271-4.
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition. ALDEHYDES, SCREENING: METHOD 2539, Issue 2, dated 15 August 1994 – 10 pages.

Additional information:

Acetaldehyde Group I human carcinogen
In October 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which forms part of the World Health Organization, classified acetaldehyde included in and generated endogenously from alcoholic beverages as a Group I human carcinogen. Acetaldehyde belongs to the same risk class as, for example, asbestos and tobacco.

Specific microbes (bacteria and yeasts) in the gastrointestinal tract are the most important source of acetaldehyde exposure to the human body. These microbes produce acetaldehyde from alcohol and, in certain circumstances, from sugar. Unlike the liver, the microbes and the intestinal mucosa cannot remove the acetaldehyde, and due to the effect of alcohol, an abundance of acetaldehyde accumulates in the saliva and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Acetaldehyde is a substance that accumulates in the body from several sources; continuous exposure to it thereby severely increases the risk of cancer to various organs.

Source: IARC, Secretan et al (2009)More information is available on the Biohit website www.biohithealthcare.com

Biohit Laboratory Services provides the facilities to measure concentrations of carcinogenic acetaldehyde concentrations in nutrition. The Service is ideal for the food industry, research institutions and supervisory authorities as well as for consumers. Detailed instructions can be found on Biohit’s website www.biohithealthcare.com/laboratory. You can also contact us by e-mail: info(at)biohit.fi

Our customers and clients can also read more on the Acetium product website www.acetium.com which contains Health information regarding current issues related to acetaldehyde in foods.