GastroPanel® should be one of the first-line diagnostic tests in examination of all patients with dyspepsia (20-40% of the western population).
GastroPanel® should be used to rule out or confirm the high acid output of reflux patients instead of the trial and error use of PPIs. The long term use of PPIs may increase the risk of stomach and oesophageal cancer.
GastroPanel® is not a test for stomach- or oesophageal cancer
GastroPanel® (Pepsinogen I, PG I, Pepsinogen II, PG II, Gastrin-17, G-17 and H.pylori antibodies) reveals:
- subjects at increased risk for stomach- and oesophageal cancer, i.e. those with atrophic gastritis (AG) as well as those with a low risk of cancer; H.pylori gastritis with no atrophic gastritis in the antrum and/or corpus
is also indicated for special target patients, with autoimmune diseases (usually more than one at the same time), including, e.g.:
- patients with autoimmune thyroiditis who may have autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG, 18%) in the corpus with related risks,
- patients with type 1 diabetes who may have AAG and, e.g., also deficiency of B-12 vitamin (12%) with related risks,
- patients with celiac disease who may have AAG with related risks, and
- patients with rheumatoid arthritis who may have AAG with related risks
In patients with AG or AAG, absorption of vitamin B-12 is reduced:
- Due to vitamin B-12 deficiency, there is an increased risk of depression, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and polyneuropathy. Consequently, all patients with depression, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia and polyneuropathy should be examined by GastroPanel® to rule out or confirm those with AG or AAG in the corpus
- Due to vitamin B-12 deficiency, increased homocysteine levels in the body may be related to:
- Atherosclerosis – these patients should be examined by GastroPanel®
to rule out or confirm
AG or AAG with related risks
- Heart attacks – these patients should be examined by GastroPanel®
- Strokes – these patients should be examined by Gastro Panel
Furthermore, in patients with AG or AAG of the corpus, absorption of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn is reduced. Low Ca is associated with osteoporosis, while low serum Fe results in anemia.
All osteoporosis and anemia patients should be examined by GastroPanel® to rule out or confirm AG or AAG.
The risk of pneumonia and, in senior citizens, also the risk of fatal intestinal infections (such as giardiasis, malaria, Clostridium difficile and E. coli EHEC) may increase significantly due to an anacidic stomach caused by AG, AAG or PPI’s. All patients with such infections should be examined by GastroPanel® for detection of AG and AAG.
All subjects diagnosed with AG and AAG in GastroPanel® examination need gastroscopic confirmation
Please note that the urea breath test (UBT), stool antigen test or H.pylori
antibody test alone do not reveal AG. Furthermore, UBT and stool antigen test give 50% of false negative results in H.pylori
patients, particularly if the patient has
- AG due to H.pylori infection or AAG, bleeding peptic ulcer, chronic use of PPI, antibiotic treatment or MALT lymphoma due to H.pylori infection (see the GastroPanel®-presentation, Appendix 1).
GastroPanel® is also suitable for screening of healthy (asymptomatic) people, because H.pylori infection, AG or AAG with related risks are often asymptomatic
is a suitable examination for screening of the subjects at risk for bleeding peptic ulcer in order to prevent hospital admissions due to acute gastrointestinal- bleeding. GastroPanel®
is indicated for population screening from 50 years of age onwards, and for testing of those who use acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. mini Asperin 100 mg). Patients with GastroPanel®
examination suggesting increased risk of peptic ulcer (H.pylori
+, PG I normal, PG I/PG II ratio normal, G-17 low), would need control by gastroscopy (see the GastroPanel®-presentation