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Update Jan 1, 2014: mg/l unit added 


Low-acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-free foods and beverages

Introduction

As a result of numerous customer requests, Biohit Oyj has decided to publish a list of foods and beverages which have been shown to contain little or no acetaldehyde during laboratory analysis. Acetaldehyde is a chemical substance with a mutagenic (genotoxic; capable ofcausing changes to a cell’s DNA) concentration of 100 micromoles per liter (µM).  Accordingly, an “as safe as possible” concentration of acetaldehyde means zero or less than 10 micromoles per liter (0.4 mg /l).

Acetaldehyde is a substance which has an apple flavor, and it is especially rich in foods prepared with a fermentation process such as alcoholic beverages, vinegars and dairy products.  In 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which forms part of the World Health Organization, classified acetaldehyde included in and generated endogenously from alcoholic beverages as a Group I human carcinogen.

Materials and Methods

Biohit investigated the acetaldehyde concentration in a number foods and beverages. The samples were randomly selected from different grocery stores in the capital area of Finland. As standard, two samples of each product were analysed. Although only small differences in the acetaldehyde concentrations of a given product were observed, the concentration may differ  between different  batches too.  The results are indicative only.

The analysis was performed using a gas-chromatography method that has been validated by Biohit (see below “Measurements”).

Results

The table below indicates the foods and beverages that are as safe as possible, meaning that they either contain only a small amount of acetaldehyde or no acetaldehyde at all (acetaldehyde concentration 0 to 10 µM (0-0,4 mg/l):

Update September 27, 2013
Table 1. Foods and beverages that contain only small amounts of acetaldehyde, analyzed by a gas chromatography.

Category Manufacturer/Brand Acetaldehyde concentration (µM)
Quark Valio PROfeel® proteiinirahkarae kolme marjaa HYLA® 0 (0)
Quark Deliciest Luomu Tyrnirahka 1 (0)
Quark Arla Keittiö®   Maustettu rahka raparperi-mansikka, Into 200 g 7 (0,3)
Quark Valio PROfeel® proteiinirahkarae mandariini-appelsiini HYLA® 8 (0,4)
Quark Arla Keittiö®   Maustettu rahka mustikka-vanilja, Into 200 g 9 (0,4)
Mullet wine Wanhan Porvoon Fabriikki Glögi 0 (0)
Mullet wine Raikastamo Luomuglögi 1 (0)
Mullet wine Hommanäs Gård Jouluglögi, tiiviste 3 (0,1)
Mullet wine Hommanäs Gård Jouluglögi 5 (0,2)
Mullet wine Stockmann Glögitiiviste 6 (0,3)
Mullet wine Saturnus AB Glögi, tiiviste 6 (0,3)
Mullet wine Herrljunga alc. 10% Klassinen Punaviini Glögi 6 (0,3)
Mullet wine Providental Wines & Spirits AB alc. 15% Dufvenkrooks Choklad 7 (0,3)
Mullet wine Marli Perinteinen Glögi 10
Baby food Semper, Mustikkaa, exp. 5.2014 1 (0)
Baby food Semper, Viidakkojälkiruoka, exp. 7.2014 3 (0,1)
Baby food Piltti, Omena-mango-kauraherkku, exp. 5.2014 3 (0,1)
Baby food Semper, Mangoa ja Banaania, exp. 7.2014 4 (0,2)
Baby food Piltti, Persikkaa ja Banaania, exp. 5.2014 5 (0,2)
Baby food Piltti, Mangoa, exp. 5.2014 5 (0,2)
Baby food Piltti, Metsämarjoja, exp. 6.2014 5 (0,2)
Baby food Piltti, Ruusunmarjaa ja Vadelmaa, exp. 5.2014 5 (0,2)
Baby food Muksu, Hedelmäralli, exp. 8.2014 7 (0,3)
Baby food Hippo, Trooppinen Mangomix, exp. 2.2014 7 (0,3)
Baby food Muksu, Marjakimara, exp. 9.2014 8 (0,4)
Baby food Muksu, Herukkaherkku, exp. 7.2014 8 (0,4)
Baby food Piltti, Aurinkoinen, exp. 5.2014 10 (0,4)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass 1 (0)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana 1 (0)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana 1 (0)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana 1 (0)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma ananas-appelsiini-rypäle-porkkana 1 (0)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass 1 (0)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass 2 (0,1)
Fruit juice Valio Gefilus® hedelmätehojuoma mango-appels-omena-ban-pass 2 (0,1)
Yogurt drink Gefilus, vanilja jogurttijuoma 0 (0)
Light beverage Freeway Cola Light 1 (0)
Light beverage Pepsi Max 2 (0,1)
Light beverage Freeway Sitruunalimonadi 3 (0,1)
Light beverage Coca-Cola Zero 3 (0,1)
Light beverage Coca-Cola light 4 (0,2)
Light beverage 7UP Free 5 (0,2)
Light beverage Sprite Zero 5 (0,2)
Light beverage Pommac Light 9 (0,4)
Mead Marli Perinteinen Sima 0 (0)
Mead Marli Kotisima 2 (0,1)
Mead VIP Perinteinen Sima 0 (0)
Sparkling wine Balance Savignon Blanc, Brut , 12% 4 (0,2)
Sparkling wine Elysee no 1 demi sec. 12% 5 (0,2)
Sparkling wine Henckel Trocken Dry-Sec, 11,5% 6 (0,3)
Sparkling wine Codorniu Cava, Seco Clasico, 11,5% 6 (0,3)
Sparkling wine Cabriz Vinho Spumante de Qualidade, Brut 2008, 12% 7 (0,3)
Sparkling wine Carrington Vintage Brut 2009, 11,5% 7 (0,3)
Sparkling wine Carrington Vintage Brut 2009, 11,5% 7 (0,3)
Sour whole milk Valio Viilis® cola HYLA® (uutuus) 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Valio Eila® Laktoositon viili mango 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Valio Viilis® Gefilus® metsämansikka vähemmän sokeria HYLA® 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Valio Viilis® omena-päärynä HYLA® 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Valio kermaviili HYLA® 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Arla Ingman® Päärynä-vaniljaviili INTO 200 g 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Arla Keittiö® Kermaviili 10% 200 g 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Rainbow Herkkumonsterin mansikkaviili 200 g 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Rainbow Kevyt Kermaviili Vähälaktoosinen 200 g 0 (0)
Sour whole milk LIDL Milbona viili 1% 0 (0)
Sour whole milk Juustoportti Luomu Kermaviili 6% 1 (0)
Sour whole milk Arla Ingman® 1% Vadelma-kirsikkaviili INTO 200 g 1 (0)
Sour whole milk Valio Kevyt Viili 2,5% 2 (0,1)
Sour whole milk Arla Ingman® 1% Laktoositon päärynä-vaniljakerrosviili 180 g 3 (0,1)
Sour whole milk Arla Ingman® 1% Viili INTO 200 g 3 (0,1)
Sour whole milk Arla Ingman® Viili 200 g 5 (0,2)
Sour whole milk Arla Ingman® Kevytviili 200 g 6 (0,3)
Sour whole milk Valio Eila® Laktoositon viili maustamaton 8 (0,4)

 

Measurements
 
Methods and Equipment:
Head-space gas chromatography adopted from the methods of Pikkarainen et al. (1979) and Jokelainen et al. (1994), as well as NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety) (1994).

Clarus 500 Gaschromatoraph, BAC-2 capillary column, TurboMatrix HS-110 sampler (PerkinElmer Finland, Turku).

Calibrators and Controls:
Acetaldehyde, CAS 75-07-0 (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA, cat# 506788), purity 99,9%. The samples were prepared by weighing.

Method Validation:
According to Biohit’s quality system (ISO 9001:2008, ISO13485:2003).

The validation was performed, when applicable, according to following standards and directives (the method is not accredited): 

  • Guidance for Industry. Q2B Validation of Analytical Procedures: Methodology. ICH November 1996.
  • 2002/657/EC Commission Decision of 12 August 2002, implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results (Text with EEA relevance).

References:
Pikkarainen PH, Salaspuro MP, Lieber CS.A method for the determination of "free" acetaldehyde in plasma. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1979 Jul;3(3):259-61.
Jokelainen K, Roine RP, Väänänen H, Färkkilä M, Salaspuro M. In vitro acetaldehyde formation by human colonic bacteria. Gut 1994; 35: 1271-4.
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition. ALDEHYDES, SCREENING: METHOD 2539, Issue 2, dated 15 August 1994 - 10 pages.

Additional information:

Acetaldehyde Group I human carcinogen

In October 2009, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which forms part of the World Health Organization, classified acetaldehyde included in and generated endogenously from alcoholic beverages as a Group I human carcinogen. Acetaldehyde belongs to the same risk class as, for example, asbestos and tobacco.

Specific microbes (bacteria and yeasts) in the gastrointestinal tract are the most important source of acetaldehyde exposure to the human body. These microbes produce acetaldehyde from alcohol and, in certain circumstances, from sugar. Unlike the liver, the microbes and the intestinal mucosa cannot remove the acetaldehyde, and due to the effect of alcohol, an abundance of acetaldehyde accumulates in the saliva and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Acetaldehyde is a substance that accumulates in the body from several sources; continuous exposure to it thereby severely increases the risk of cancer to various organs.
Source: IARC, Secretan et al (2009)
More information is available on the Biohit website www.biohithealthcare.com

Biohit Laboratory Services provides the facilities to measure concentrations of carcinogenic acetaldehyde concentrations in nutrition. The Service is ideal for the food industry, research institutions and supervisory authorities as well as for consumers. Detailed instructions can be found on Biohit’s website www.biohithealthcare.com/laboratory-services. You can also contact us by e-mail: info(at)biohit.fi

Our customers and clients can also read more on the Acetium product website www.acetium.com which contains Health information regarding current issues related to acetaldehyde in foods.